This is an introduction to linear algebra. The main part of the book features row operations and everything is done in terms of the row reduced echelon form and specific algorithms. At the end, the more abstract notions of vector spaces and linear…

The Mayans used arithmetic to make astronomical computations, and developed the concept of zero over 2,000 years ago. The word “arithmetic” is derived from the Greek word arithmos (translated as
“number”). It is the oldest and most…

This book helps students to master the material of a standard US undergraduate first course in Linear Algebra. The material is standard in that the subjects covered are Gaussian reduction, vector spaces, linear maps, determinants, and eigenvalues and…

Elementary Algebra is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license, which means that you can distribute, remix, and build upon the content, as long as you provide attribution to OpenStax and its content…

It’s a cold day in Antarctica. In fact, it’s always a cold day in Antarctica. Earth’s southernmost continent, Antarctica experiences the coldest, driest, and windiest conditions known. The coldest temperature ever recorded, over one hundred…