Browse Items (23 total)

Cell Division Mitosis.jpg
The stages of cell division oversee the separation of identical genetic material into two new nuclei, followed by the division of the cytoplasm.

The Nucleus.jpg
The nucleus is the control center of the cell. The nucleus of living cells contains the genetic material that determines the entire structure and function of that cell.

The Three Components of the Cytoskeleton.jpg
The cytoskeleton consists of (a) microtubules, (b) microfilaments, and (c) intermediate filaments. The cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintaining cell shape and structure, promoting cellular movement, and aiding cell division.

The mitochondria are the energy-conversion factories of the cell. (a) A mitochondrion is composed of two separate lipid bilayer membranes. Along the inner membrane are various molecules that work together to produce ATP, the cell’s major energy…

Golgi Apparatus.jpg
(a) The Golgi apparatus manipulates products from the rough ER, and also produces new organelles called lysosomes. Proteins and other products of the ER are sent to the Golgi apparatus, which organizes, modifies, packages, and tags them. Some of…

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER).jpg
(a) The ER is a winding network of thin membranous sacs found in close association with the cell nucleus. The smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula are very different in appearance and function (source: mouse tissue). (b) Rough ER is studded with…

Prototypical Human Cell.jpg
While this image is not indicative of any one particular human cell, it is a prototypical example of a cell containing the primary organelles and internal structures.

Fatty Acid Shapes.jpg
The level of saturation of a fatty acid affects its shape. (a) Saturated fatty acid chains are straight. (b) Unsaturated fatty acid chains are kinked.

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Exocytosis is much like endocytosis in reverse. Material destined for export is packaged into a vesicle inside the cell. The membrane of the vesicle fuses with the cell membrane, and the contents are released into the extracellular space.

Three Forms of Endocytosis.jpg
Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell envelopes extracellular materials using its cell membrane. (a) In phagocytosis, which is relatively nonselective, the cell takes in a large particle. (b) In pinocytosis, the cell takes in…

Sodium-Potassium Pump.jpg
The sodium-potassium pump is found in many cell (plasma) membranes. Powered by ATP, the pump moves sodium and potassium ions in opposite directions, each against its concentration gradient. In a single cycle of the pump, three sodium ions are…

Facilitated Diffusion.jpg
(a) Facilitated diffusion of substances crossing the cell (plasma) membrane takes place with the help of proteins such as channel proteins and carrier proteins. Channel proteins are less selective than carrier proteins, and usually mildly…

Cell Membrane.jpg
The cell membrane of the cell is a phospholipid bilayer containing many different molecular components, including proteins and cholesterol, some with carbohydrate groups attached.

Fluorescence-stained Cell Undergoing Mitosis.jpg
A lung cell from a newt, commonly studied for its similarity to human lung cells, is stained with fluorescent dyes. The green stain reveals mitotic spindles, red is the cell membrane and part of the cytoplasm, and the structures that appear light…

Adenosine Triphosphate.jpg
The nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is composed of a ribose sugar, an adenine base, and three phosphate groups ([link]). ATP is classified as a high energy compound because the two covalent bonds linking its three phosphates store a…

Three Important Polysaccharides.jpg
Polysaccharides can contain a few to a thousand or more monosaccharides. Three are important to the body:

Starches are polymers of glucose. They occur in long chains called amylose or branched chains called amylopectin, both of which are…

A disaccharide is a pair of monosaccharides. Disaccharides are formed via dehydration synthesis, and the bond linking them is referred to as a glycosidic bond (glyco- = “sugar”). Three disaccharides are important to humans. These are sucrose,…

Elements of the Human Body.jpg
The main elements that compose the human body are shown from most abundant to least abundant.

UGA Anatomy and Physiology 2 Lab Manual.pdf
The manual contains the following labs:

Blood Composition
Blood Typing
Heart Anatomy
Cardiovascular Physiology
Systemic Blood Vessels
Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Physiology of the Respiratory System

UGA Anatomy and Physiology 1 Lab Manual.pdf
The manual contains the following labs:

Introduction to the Skeleton
Axial Skeleton: Skull
Axial Skeleton: Vertebral
Appendicular Skeleton: Introduction and Pectoral Girdle

2. Anatomy_and_Physiology_of_Animals.pdf
fter completing this section, you should know the:
• symbols used to represent atoms;
• names of molecules commonly found in animal cells;
• characteristics of ions and electrolytes;
• basic structure of carbohydrates with examples;

Welcome to Human Anatomy and Physiology, an OpenStax College resource. We created this textbook with several goals
in mind: accessibility, customization, and student engagement—helping students reach high levels of academic…
This video was created for the contest " anatomy by students, international contest"
Category 5. ENT, ophthalmology, General Practice

This video by Hershko Sarah is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International…
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