In our text, mathematical modeling and difference and differential equations lead, closely follow, and extend the elements of calculus. Chapter one introduces mathematical modeling in which students write descriptions of some observed processes and from these descriptions derive first order linear difference equations whose solutions can be compared with the observed data. In chapters in which the derivatives of algebraic, exponential, or trigonometric functions are defined, biologically motivated differential equations and their solutions are included. The chapter on partial derivatives includes a section on the diffusion partial differential equation. There is a chapter on systems of two difference equations.
James L. Cornette
Ralph A. Ackerman
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Cut Rita Zahara
James L. Cornette and Ralph A. Ackerman , “Calculus for The Life Sciences A Modeling Approach Volume II,” Open Educational Resource (OER) , accessed October 24, 2020, http://oer.iain-padangsidimpuan.ac.id/items/show/360.